Trees are the largest and longest living organisms on earth. To grow tall the tree has become a miracle of engineering and a complex chemical factory. It is able to take water and salts out of the earth and lift them up to the leaves, sometimes over 400 ft above. By means of photosynthesis the leaves combine the water and salts with carbon dioxide from the air to produce the nutrients which feed the tree. In this process, as well as wood, trees create many chemicals, seeds and fruit of great utility to man. Trees also remove carbon dioxide, the main greenhouse gas, from the air.
Trees are of continued importance to the environment. Tropical rain forests have of particular significance; although they now occupy less than 6 per cent of the land surface of the earth they probable sustain more than half of the biological species on the planet.
Notwithstanding the debt we owe to trees, their emotive power, and their importance to other forms of life, the forested area of the earth is steadily being depleted. This is leading to the degradation of the environment and the extinction of many species. There is now a real danger that in the not very distant future man will destroy a large proportion of the present population of species on earth, create an uninhabitable environment, and then die out. If this happens it will not be the first time that a large proportion of the species on the earth have been extinguished.
Role of Trees
1.) A small seed becomes a big Tree, gives shed in summer and in winter all of the leaves of the Tree falls down;
2.) Provides us more sunlight and the atmosphere becomes more warm.
3.) Flower on threes give joyfulness to us. Fruits satisfy our hunger.
4.) Trees always take away polluted air (Carbon Dioxide) from the environment and in return they give fresh, purified oxygen
5.) Tree provide home to the Birds, Animals and Human Beings also.
6.) Some tree have medicinal values also, their every part starting from the roots to the top are full of medicinal values, Neem (Botanical Name: Azadirachta Indica) is a very famous tree and best example of this.
7.) Trees help in controlling temperature of the environment. You have noticed that the place where there are trees, are much cooler and hygienic for living.
Apart from the above, trees are effectively the lungs of the environment. They take much of carbon dioxide from the atmosphere and release oxygen via photosynthesis. Therefore, the greenhouse gas load is reduced and effects of global warming are also brought down. Further dead trees that get buried in soil eventually provide fossil fuels like coal, gasoline products, etc. Among all, trees have an indisputable role in bringing rain to earth. Moreover, they provide a cover over the top surface of earth preventing excessive heating up by solar rays.
On the other hand, trees are now cut down. Deforestation is normal now a day and because of this, it creates a lot of problem not only in our community but also in our economy. Some of the hazards from deforestation are as follow:
1.) Soil Erosion: The trees help in keeping the soil intact with their roots but when there is lot of cutting of trees, the soil is washed away with water during the rains. And during floods it creates havoc. Due to soil erosion the water level also falls down.
2.) Pollution: Trees help in controlling the pollution in the air and if there are no trees, we have to face more air pollution.
3.) Lack of Pure Oxygen
4.) Environmental Imbalance
5.) Imbalance in the Food Chain of the Ecosystem.
6.) Global Warming is becoming a major problem these days due to this. Due to this Glaciers are melting and the Sea Level is rising day by day. This is indirectly creating lot of ecological problems.